Paint is the liquid or liquefiable mixture of Binder and Pigments to create a layer of cover to materials surface. This mixture is modified with additives and solvents depending on the purpose of the product. Paint has many colors, designed to cover and stick to the surface of many different materials, because of this paint is normally used to:
+ Decorating
+ Protect the material’s surface
+ Other purpose

Paint is consisted of these following components:
+ Binder (or firm former): the binder is the main component of paint, it is the firm forming part of the mixture. The nature of the binder decide the paint type (oil or alkyd…) and the paint gloss, durability, flexibility and toughness.
+ Extender: Used to improve statics of paint like: durability, flexibility and toughness of the paint’s layer, improve the painting procedure…Frequently used Extender are: Calcium Carbonate, Kaolin, Talc…
+ Pigments: powder used to create the paint’s color and improving some aspect of gloss and durability of the paint Pigments can be natural or synthetic. Natural pigments have dark tone (except Titan dioxide) and better coverage, durability while Synthetic pigments have brighter tone but lower coverage and durability.
+ Additives: Used in very small amount but improve the quality of the paint. Depending of the paint purpose, different additives are used.
+ Solvent: Used to dissolve the polymer and adjust the viscocity of the paint. The type of polymer used in the paint decide the proper solvent to be used.

The making of paint consisted of these following parts:
+ Pre-mix: This is the part where the components are mixed to create a stable mixture so that the grinding part can proceed.
+ Grinding: The components are grinded to create a firm mesh depending on the demand of the product.
+ Letdown: Dissolve and completing the product.
+ Cleaning: Get rid of the impurities to create the best possible mixture.

The paint’s layer can be affected by problems of these following facts:
+ The kind of surfaces and materials that are going to be painted.
+ Surface preparation process.
+ Painting process.
+ The quality of chosen paint. With any of those above have any problems, the whole layer can be affected.

Because a prepared surface will result in a better paint layer. Any material surfaces need to be prepared before painting can begin. The right preparation process will improve the paint layer drastically while ill-prepared surface will result in lower the layer quality. Preparation process including these steps:
+ Cleaning the impurities: which may be older paint layer, rust or dust…
+ Fill any holes and try to create an even and flat surface.
+ Wipe clean and create a dry surface before painting can begin.

The painting plan is the plan to guide the painting process so that it can follow the right steps. Like building a house, the painting procedure can be compared as follow:
+ Create the foundation = Prepare the painting surface
+ Solidify the foundation, building columns = Primer layer
+ Building walls, roof = Finishing layer.
The basic painting plan consisted of these following steps:
+ Surface preparation
+ Paint 1 layer of primer paint
+ Finishing with 2 layer of finishing paints.
Always follow the painting plan to improve the quality of your building!

Primer is the kind of paint that must be painted before the finishing paint can be used. It is very important since it provide these following effects:
+ Help the finishing layer stick harder to the material’s surface.
+ Protect the finishing layer from many harmful effects of corrosion, erosion, humidity and rust…

Because of the importance of the primer layer, this layer must cover the intended surface entirely. Choosing the right primer is very important since each type of surface have the primer made for it. But in some circumstances, users can use different primers to fit their intended outcome. For a flat surface, with no flaw, primer can be painted with any tools, like roller or brush or gun. But for a flawed or ragged , edgy surface like metal, wood it is recommended to use paint spraying gun or soft brush.

The finishing layer main goal is to decorate the intended surface, withstand the environment harshness, protect the building..etc. Depend on the purpose of the construction the right finishing layer can be chosen. Common method of painting the finishing layer:
+ Rollers
+ Brush
+ Paint spraying gun
+ Puty layer
+ Dip in paint Depend on the intended surface, choose the appreciate method.

Yes, the producer of the product has already designed them to be in complete synergy with other products in the same order to prevent the risk of incompatible products.

Interior paint is intended to use on the surfaces inside of the building, these paint have weak resistance against environment’s harshness like humidity, moss or direct sunlight, rain. Exterior paint, on the other hand, are designed to withstand all of those condition, there for well-equipped to be used on the outside surface of the building. If interior paint is wrongly used on outside surface, these problems may occur:
+ The surface became chalked due to erosion of the paint.
+ Moss will occur.
+ The paint colors will deteriorate over very short amount of time. On the cover of the products, the company will always have the description of which type of paint is Interior or Exterior, try to pay attention to the information.

The storage-able time of paint depend on the quality of the paint inside the barrel and the environment where the paint is kept. To store paint correctly, simply follow these rules:
+ Position the paint barrel up-straight, make sure the lid is properly sealed.
+ Keep the paint in cool areas, avoid hot places or direct sunlight, weathers.

Yes, there are some differences in prices between the colors, depending on which one is normal and which is special color. Prices may varies depend on which type of colors is used and the intense of it. Customers can orders any colors, as long as they are present on the list of mixable colors of the company.

The colors on the table and the real-life colors may have some differences, because of the printing method of the colors table. In real-life, the paint layer will have thicker colors than in the table due to the enlargement of space. Besides, colors may be affected by the condition of light, space and nearby colors, so it may be a bit different from the table. The colors MAY deteriorate after times depend on the condition of the products or the environment or flaws during painting process.

There is no rule in the matter of colors since it is strictly depended on user’s preference. But there are a few steps we can offer you in choosing the right colors for your house:
+ First, choose the main color or the color tone of your intended rooms, house.
+ Harmony in bending the colors in decorating the house is important, aside from the colors of the walls, pay attention to the colors of the furniture you going to put inside the room.
+ When choosing colors from the table of the producer, please view it in both daylight and nighttime light condition so that you can see the difference in changing colors from light conditions.
+ After all that, you may order a small amount of paint to paint in a experiment. If the color is perfect, you may proceed to buy larger amount and start painting the building.
+ Remember that when painted on large spaces, same paint colors will seem thicker than in the colors table.

Coverage ratio is the amount of Square-meters that 1kg or 1l of paint can cover. To count the amount of paint needed, simply do as follow:
+ Measure exactly the spaces you want to paint (S)
+ From the paint stats, find the coverage ratio of it (square meters per kg/l), then simply count the amount needed by multiply the ratio with the total S.

The quality and the colors ratio of 2 layers are always better than only 1. 2 layers will help cover many flaws and ensure the coverage of the entire intended surface.

Adding too much water to the paint than the designed amount of the company will result in lower the quality of the paint’s layer. It will be easier to be affected by chalking, moss and even the painting process will be harder due to diluted paint tend to flow too much.

Yes, it is very important to obey the time required between each layer of paint. But the time may be varied a bit from the recommended time due to environment conditions or real-time circumstances. Users just need to ensure the previous layer is complete dried before the next layer can be applied.

Do not use white paint instead of the primer, due to it not having the primer main effects:: creating the semi-glue between the surface and the finishing layer, preventing deteriolize…protecting the finishing layers.

Do not use white cement instead of the primer. Since cement can’t:
+ Create a layer thin enough to form a semi-glue layer between the surface and the finishing layer.
+ Cement is easy to be chalked.
+ Can’t resist alkali.

If the old paint layers are still in good condition, you may proceed to remove the old finishing layer then clean the surface and paint in new layers on the old primer layer. If the old paint layers are in poor condition with moss, flawed, chalked, it is recommended to clear the surface entirely and paint a new and proper primer layer.

Quality will be assured if surface is treated correctly.

Interior paints are intended to do decorating purpose so they have little to none waterproof stat included.

If the crack is small, it can be painted over but if the crack is too large, you may have to do some surface preparation to prevent the cracking of the surface later.

With interior surface, the main problem that is going to occur without primer layer is alkali. To check, we simply need to remove a small area of paint from the surface and see if there is any thin layer of white primer or not, if there is none it is without primer layer.

No, do not paint emulsify paints over oil-based paints.

Follow this order when you start painting the room: Ceiling (Emulsify paint)-> Walls (E-paint)-> Door (Oil Paint) -> Windows (Oil Paint) -> Wall’s underline (E-Paint)

First, use the small brush to paint the corner. Second, paint the larger areas by creating 75cm wide line at a time with rollers, use ladder or long rollers to reach the high places. Always finish the ceiling first before starting on the walls.

+ Flat paints do not have the ability to prevent dirt and can not be cleaned.
+ Semi-gloss paints have the ability to prevent dirt and can easily be cleaned, therefore should be used on kitchen, bathroom or some doors.
+ Gloss paint have the greatest brightness and easies to clean and hardest dirt preventing stat but too much bright may not fit on walls. It is recommended to be used on doors, windows.

Kerosene is not the right solvent for the anti-stain primers, so the dissolving ability is quite low. When curdled paint appear, simply try to mix more until it is soft enough to use. If there is some time before painting but the paint is already dissolved, you may have to mix it again before starting.

Solvent based primer has excellent adhesive on mastic surface. It can absorb chalk on surface while water based primer do not have this ability. So solvent based primer is good choice to used on special surface as a treatment for chalking surface.

Some construction may experience the absorbing of water from the inside, which create large stained area and moss. In this case, we can treat those surfaces by doing as follow:
+ Find the source of the water or moisture, seal and prevent it. Wait until the surface is dry again.
+ Paint one anti stain primer layer
+ The finishing layers maybe waterproof paints for exterior or waterproof paint and finishing emulsify paint for interior.

Waterproof paints are acrylic based paints with waterproof ability. It can be used on walls, pond, water tank, cement, roof or ceiling. There is some caution while painting these:
+ The paint must be mixed well before painting can start.
+ The rollers used in painting must be oil-proof.
+ When painting, roll the rollers steadily, do not roll over and over again.
+ When paint the second layer of waterproof, you must make sure the time required between each layer are met.
+ Use protection glass and mask while painting.

It is advised not to do so, since waterproof paint may be able to withstand water and moisture, it cant do so against alkalization on high alkali surface. It is recommended to use one layer of primer before using waterproof paint.

Waterproof paints have high vaporization rate so it dry quickly. If the workers take too long to paint on one dip, it will start to dry when rolling, creating a raw surface. The principle of waterproofing paint is to be painted steadily, do not roll over and over in one time. After painting the first layer but not waited enough time to begin the 2nd layer, the next layer will not be able to stabilize and the surface will become rugged and raw.

It can be used, but just on permitted amount.

It can be used, but since the oil-based paints are not good in withstanding alkali, in alkali-high surface, the layers will deteriorate quickly. The flexibility of oil-based paints is not high in high moisture environment too, so the layers in these conditions may come off quickly, or the layers may become too soft after time.

Yes it can be paint directly but the surface without primer layer with get rusty quickly and will affect the finishing layers.

Use sandpaper to clean the old surface, then we can proceed to paint normally.

The solvent-based paints need some time to reach it physical-peak condition. For example, oil-based paint will dry after 24 hours but it need about a week for the layer to become solid and stick hard to the surface.

This happen when the time needed between layers are not met. The primer layer, still haven’t dried yet was covered by the finishing layers, resulting in it’s weakened state and get dissolved in to the finishing layers. The red line are the primer (with usually red in color) get dissolved in to the outer layers.

Use high-quality rollers will help a lot in painting, able to achieve higher quality layers. Rollers made from sheep’s fur are recommended for epoxy and oil based paints, but composite rollers can be used too. With flat and soft surface, it is recommended to use rollers with 3/8” to ½” thread’s length. For brick walls, ragged surface, use the ¾” to 1” type. Use ¼” type for very lumpy surface and 3/16” for flat and soft surface encountered while painting varnish or glaze.

When the barrel is opened but the lid is not sealed properly after that, then the paint inside will dry after some times. In this case, to continue using the remaining paint, we just use JOTHINER, pour some JOTHINER inside the barrel, mix it by machine or normally until the membrane dissolved. Caution: do not use JOTHINER for more than 10% of the total remaining paints. Try to seal the lid properly after use to prevent this problem from happening again.

This problem occurs when the lid is not sealed for a long time, causing the paint to dry up. In this case, remove the hardened membrane on top, then adding xylene to dissolve the remaining paint, but don’t add as much as 5% remaining volume. Remember to seal the lid properly to prevent this from happening again.

During rainy day, air temperature will drop and moisture is high. This affects the drying process of the paint. More than that, rainy day causes water to sink in to walls, if we keep on painting, this may result in the layers come off later. In rainy days, we can paint the interior surface if the temperature is high enough, the moisture is acceptable and water didn’t sink into the walls. During cold days, it is advised not to paint anything since the paint can not dry properly, resulting in dotted, hard to dry, and “sweating” surface. It is not advised to paint on sunny day too, for too high temperature can result in the paint dried up too fast. The paint need to stay in liquid form for sometimes so that the alchemic components can be absorbed to the walls and stick to the surface properly. High temperature make them vaporize too fast, resulting in reduction in stability, crack on surface…

Normally, after painting, the room will have smell for sometimes. After painting, it is advised to open all doors and keep the air flowing in and out of the room so that the smell can be cleared faster. The smell will vanish after 2-3 days under normal conditions

These can be caused by those following facts:
+ The finishing layers were painted on lumpy mastic.
+ The absorbent rate of surface is not equal.
+ High alkali surface affect the colors.
+ Mastic hasn’t dried up yet or too thick.
+ The finishing layers were not equally painted. This can be prevented by hiring experienced workers.

This problem can happen when you painted the finishing layers too thick. The layers took too much time to dry up and after a long time it’s still soft. With some force from the outside, the layers will come off en masse. This can happen when the layer didn’t reach it peak-physical condition and was affected accidently by physical forces from outside (touch, sharp object…)

Epoxy paint is the type of paint that consisted of two major parts: the liquid paint part and the Activator part. Before painting start, combine the two parts using the ratio suggested by the Paint’s producer.

Epoxy Paints can be painted on many kind of surface, especially those who need excellent protection against erosion, sea water or harsh weather’s conditions, direct chemicals contact.

Epoxy paints activator part need to be combined with the right ratio to get the best quality paint. If too much activator was mixed in, the paint’s layer will become too crunchy and easy to break. On the other hand, with too little activator mixed, the layer will become easy to come off or in some case not able to dry up.

Thời gian sống (potlife) là khoảng thời gian mà sơn Epoxy đã phối trộn từ hai thành phần dạng lỏng và vẫn có thể dễ dàng sơn được. Khi sơn chuyển trạng thái có nghĩa là lúc đó hỗn hợp của hai thành phần đặc dần. Thời gian sống quyết định thời gian thi công sơn Epoxy.

It is advised not to use rollers on metal surfaces when using Epoxy Primers, since rollers are not able to cover the flaws frequently seen on metal surfaces. These flaws, when uncovered by primers are easily rusted over a short amount of time, affecting the whole layer.

Yes, for small surfaces rollers or brush can be used to paint Epoxy Paints.

Yes, it can be painted by Epoxy Paints, but require a bit of surface preparation. The granite surface is glossy and may result in poor sticking rate of the layer. It is needed to use sand spraying or sandpaper to make the surface ragged before new Epoxy layer can be painted on.

Epoxy Paints can only be dissolved by using the right Solvent made by the producer. Do not use any other type of solvent except the one suggested by the paint’s producer.

It is proven by the Ministry of Healthcare and Medical that Epoxy Paints can be used on those constructions without affecting the water quality.

Epoxy Paints should be used on two-components type of mastic. This is the new type of mastic with many advantages over the old mastic type. JOTON have developed this new mastic and we can produce them by any demand now

On this surface, we suggest using the special “Moisture proofing” Epoxy paint. JOTON have this line of product.

The Epoxy surface is knew for it hard and glossy nature. So for the new Epoxy layer to be applied, it is needed to make the old surface ragged enough so the new layer can stick in properly. It is normally treated by sand spraying or sand paper polishing.

Zinc-rich Epoxy paints are made to counter erosion, rust on long term metal surface. When using this kind of paint, please follow these rules:
+ Do not use rollers to paint this kind of product.
+ Always stir the paint mixture to ensure the zinc does not fall to the bottom of the barrel.
+ Only paint on cleaned metal surface.
+ Do not use this product on underwater surfaces or ship’s shell.

Epoxy Paints are knew for their high resistance against chemicals factor, they can resist weak acid, strong alkali and solvents. For concentrated sulfuric acid, this is a strong acid and normal Epoxy will wither in a week. To counter this, use the special anti-acid type of Epoxy on acid’s tanker.

One of the main antifouling components inside the paint is Copper oxide I, which can be easily oxide to become Copper oxide II that have no antifouling effect. So it is advised to lunch the ship as quick as possible to prevent this oxidation of the paint layer.

The course of the water flowing across the ship’s shell in real life use affect the rate of fouling appeared on the shells. In addition, the parts with thicker layer antifouling paint always have less fouling than the unprotected or thin layer of anti-fouling.

The antifouling effect of these paints depended on the ability to emit the antifouling toxins of the layer. For different course of time or purposes, the paint producer designed different type of antifouling with many kind of duration fitting the customer demand. In this example, we have 6, 12 and 24 month kind of produce.

Mastic is a type of construction material that can be used right after mixing it with water. Mastic is used to prepare a suitable surface for paints to be applied. The surface presented by mastic has flat and soft nature, increasing the decorative properties of the walls. Normally, mastic is formed by these components: - Adhesion: with two type Minerals (cement, gypsum) and Polymer. - Filler - Additives.

The effect of weather conditions is different between interior surface and exterior surface. The exterior mastic must endure direct heat, moisture and sunlight, the pressure of rain drops and, without waterproofing primers, rainwater itself. Interior mastic face much less of these conditions, still they have to endure higher moisture of the indoor condition. For that reason, the producer always designs different kind of mastic fitting different surface. To define which kind of mastic is interior or exterior, simply read the instruction printed on the products container.

To mix mastic correctly, simply pour water into the powder with the right ratio suggested by the producer the mix the mixture until it is ready to use. Water with little alum can be used to mix mastic but too high alum-contaminated water can not be used.

Normal mastics have average pot life of 3 hours. Try to measure the amount needed and working time carefully before mixing to prevent waste of materials

Do not add cement to the mastic mixture. The mastic mixture has been designed by the producer to present best quality with the ingredients already. When cement is added, the mastic will become harder and crack will appear on the surface.

After being applied to the walls, normally mastic will not be stained. If stains do appear, it is mostly because of the moisture in the environment. If the stained area is not too soft or coming off then anti-stain primer can be used on them before painting can begin.

Too damp surfaces will make the mastic harder to dry, sometimes not able to solidify properly resulting in poor quality of the whole mastic layer. Too dry surfaces, on the other hand, vaporize the water inside the mastic so fast it cant stay in glue state for the required time.

There are some causes of this problem:
+ The mastic was mixed with too little water.
+ The walls or air condition was too dry it makes the mastic mixture lose needed water. This resulting in the chemicals has no time to complete the process of linking.
+ Low quality products with not sufficient chemical components. To solve this problem, aside from completely removal of the mastic layer and make a new one, users may use oil-based primer to treat the surface, creating a solid new surface so that paints can be applied normally. If you not solve this problem and applying new paints layers, the paints will have poor quality and crack, coming off of layers will appear.

It is recommended not to apply mastic directly to the raw granite surface. This surface usually has moss or raw flaw with dryness above the standard. First, we need to clean the surface with iron brush and water, then use Chlorine to wash the surface. After that, use cement to fill the surface, repairing flaws then apply the mastic on the surface.

The usual causes of this problem are:
+ The mastic is too hard and the drying time was too short.
+ The mastic layer is too thick.
+ Weak surface structure.
+ From shock of physical impact.

It may come off or cracks will form on the layer due to it being too thick.

The paint layers always stick to the mastic layers, so if all come off this is due to problems during the applying process or the quality of the mastic. Problems during the process of applying mastic include: too thick mastic layer, the surface was prepared poorly. The quality of the mastic was low, such as poor sticking abilities.

Normal mastic can not be used on gypsum surface. To apply mastic on gypsum surface, the mastic has to be gypsum-based.

It is advised not to do so. The mastic layer usually not have glossy or clean surface so it will affect the decorating purpose. The longevity of such layer is low, the colors are highly unequal and the surface is exposed to chalking risk.

Khi bề mặt bột trét tường bị bong rộp cục bộ bị bong rộp, thì có nghĩa là chỉ có những chỗ bong rộp liên kết bị phá hủy, phần còn lại thì liên kết ổn định. Do vậy khi ta đã cạo bỏ phần bong rộp, cho đến khi lộ ra phần bề mặt bột trét ổn định, làm sạch bụi bằng nước, chờ đến khi có độ ẩm cho phép, trét lại chổ bị bong rộp thì liên kết giữa bột trét mới và cũ sẽ ổn định, không bị bong tróc nữa.